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Conference Paper


Research Publication Type: Conference Paper

Learning Ontology Classes from Text by Clustering Lexical Substitutes Derived from Language Models

Many tools for knowledge management and the Semantic Web presuppose the existence of an arrangement of instances into classes, i. e. an ontology. Creating such an ontology, however, is a labor-intensive task. We present an unsupervised method to learn an ontology from text. We rely on pre-trained language models to generate lexical substitutes of given entities and then use matrix factorization to induce new classes and their entities. Our method differs from previous approaches in that (1) it captures the polysemy of entities; (2) it produces interpretable labels of the induced classes; (3) it does not require any particular structure of the text; (4) no re-training is required. We evaluate our method on German and English WikiNER corpora and demonstrate the improvements over state of the art approaches.

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WiC-TSV: An Evaluation Benchmark for Target Sense Verification of Words in Context

We present WiC-TSV, a new multi-domain evaluation benchmark for Word Sense Disambiguation. More specifically, we introduce a framework for Target Sense Verification of Words in Context which grounds its uniqueness in the formulation as binary classification task thus being independent of external sense inventories, and the coverage of various domains. This makes the dataset highly flexible for the evaluation of a diverse set of models and systems in and across domains. WiC-TSV provides three different evaluation settings, depending on the input signals provided to the model. We set baseline performance on the dataset using state-of-the-art language models. Experimental results show that even though these models can perform decently on the task, there remains a gap between machine and human performance, especially in out-of-domain settings. WiC-TSV data is available at

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WiC-TSV-de: German Word-in-Context Target-Sense-Verification Dataset and Cross-Lingual Transfer Analysis

Target Sense Verification (TSV) describes the binary disambiguation task of deciding whether the intended sense of a target word in a context corresponds to a given target sense. In this paper, we introduce WiC-TSV-de, a multi-domain dataset for German Target Sense Verification. While the training and development sets consist of domain-independent instances only, the test set contains domain-bound subsets, originating from four different domains, being Gastronomy, Medicine, Hunting, and Zoology. The domain-bound subsets incorporate adversarial examples such as in-domain ambiguous target senses and context-mixing (i.e., using the target sense in an out-of-domain context) which contribute to the challenging nature of the presented dataset. WiC-TSV-de allows for the development of sense-inventory-independent disambiguation models that can generalise their knowledge for different domain settings. By combining it with the original English WiC-TSV benchmark, we performed monolingual and cross-lingual analysis, where the evaluated baseline models were not able to solve the dataset to a satisfying degree, leaving a big gap to human performance.

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